Resource Documents: Ordinances (50 items)
Documents presented here are not the product of nor are they necessarily endorsed by National Wind Watch. These resource documents are provided to assist anyone wishing to research the issue of industrial wind power and the impacts of its development. The information should be evaluated by each reader to come to their own conclusions about the many areas of debate.
Author: Town of Freedom, Maine
9.1 Wind Turbine Classifications
Type 1 – Small Wind Turbine means a wind turbine with a nameplate capacity less than 10 kW, and a turbine height less than 150 feet.
Type 2 – Intermediate Wind Turbine means a wind turbine with a nameplate capacity between 10 kW and 100 kW, and a turbine height less than 150′.
Type 3 – Large Wind Turbine means up to three wind turbines with a nameplate capacity less than 1 MW, and a turbine height less than 300′, regardless of whether approval is required by the Department of Environmental Protection under 35-A M.R.S.A. §3451, et seq. (Expedited Permitting of Grid-Scale Wind Energy) or Title 38 M.R.S.A § 481, et seq. (Site Location of Development Act).
Type 4 – Industrial Wind Turbine means one or more wind turbines with a Nameplate capacity of greater than or equal to 1 MW, and/or a turbine height greater than 300′, regardless of whether approval is required by the Department of Environmental Protection under 35-A M.R.S.A. §3451, et seq. (Expedited Permitting of Grid-Scale Wind Energy) or Title 38 M.R.S.A § 481, et seq. (Site Location of Development Act).
13.1 Setback Standards
13.1.1 Setback standards for Type 1 Wind Turbines:
a. Non-participating Landowner Property Lines –Type 1 Wind Turbines less than or equal to 100′ shall be set back from the property line of any Nonparticipating Landowner a distance of no less than 1.5 times the turbine height. Type 1 Wind Turbines greater than 100′ and less than 150′ shall be set back from the property line of any Non-participating Landowner a distance of no less than 3 times the turbine height. Non-participating property owners may waive this setback with a written Mitigation Waiver. (See Section 13.4 -Mitigation Waiver), but in no event shall any Wind Turbine be located at a distance from an Occupied Building that is less than the height of the Turbine.
b. Public Roads – Type 1 Wind Turbines shall be set back from any public road, from the edge of the right of way, a distance no less than 1.5 times the turbine height.
13.1.2 Setback standards for Type 2, 3, and 4 wind turbines:
a. Non-participating Landowner Property Lines – Type 2, 3 and 4 Wind Turbines To protect the health, safety and welfare of the citizens of Freedom, Turbines shall be set back from the property line of any non-participating land owner a distance of no less than 13 times the turbine height. Nonparticipating property owners may waive this setback with a written Mitigation Waiver (see Section 13.4 – Mitigation Waiver), but in no event shall any WindTurbine be located at a distance from an Occupied Building that is less than the height of the Turbine.
b. Public Roads – Type 2, 3 and 4 Wind Turbines will be set back from any public road, from the edge of the right of way, a distance no less than 4 times the turbine height.
13.1.3 Setbacks from Scenic or Special Resources:
All Wind Turbines exceeding 80 feet or average tree height on site, whichever is greater, must be set back a minimum of 2,500 feet from any Scenic or Special Resource as defined in Section 8.
13.2 Noise Standards
13.2.1 Noise Standards for Type 1 and 2 wind turbines:
For Type 1and Type 2 Wind Turbines, audible noise levels (dBA)at any property line due to wind turbine operations shall not exceed 35 dB(A) from 6 AM (8 AM on Sundays) to 8:30 PM and 30 dB(A) from 8:30 PM to 6 AM (8 AM on Sundays). Property owners may waive this noise restriction with a written Mitigation Waiver. (see Section 13.4 -Mitigation Waiver).
13.2.2 Noise Standards for Type 3 and 4 wind turbines:
a. Audible noise levels (dBA) due to wind turbine operation shall not exceed either of the following two conditions:
1. The pre-construction ambient noise level by more than 5dBA as measured at any property line. Pre-construction ambient noise studies shall be conducted, by the applicant, for all properties located within 2 times the setback of proposed wind turbine site.
2. The audible noise levels will not exceed 40 dBA during the day or 35 dBA during the night.
b. Low frequency noise levels (dBC) due to wind turbine operation as measured inside an occupied building or at any property line will not exceed:
1. 20 decibels (measured as dBC) above the pre-construction ambient noise level (measured as dBA). Pre-construction ambient noise studies shall be conducted, by the applicant, for all properties located within 2 times the setback of proposed wind turbine site.
2. 50 dBC.
13.3.1 Wind Turbines shall be designed and sited so that shadow flicker and/or blade reflection will not fall on a shadow flicker receptor as defined in Section 8. The flicker or reflection shall not exceed 10 hours per year for any given receptor.
16.7.1 Wind Turbine Projects shall be sited and operated so that they do not interfere with emergency (fire, police/sheriff, ambulance) radio two way communications (base stations, mobile, and hand held radios, including digital) and/or paging, television, telephone (including cellular and digital), microwave, satellite (dish), navigational, internet or radio reception to neighboring areas. The Owner/operator of the project shall be responsible for the full cost of any remediation necessary to provide equivalent alternate service or correct any problems, including relocation or removal of the Wind Turbine, and any and all related transmission lines, transformers, and other components related to the interference.
23.0 Decommissioning Standards
23.1 The Owner/operator shall, at its expense, complete decommissioning of the Wind Turbine Project within:
1) twelve (12) months after the end of the useful life of the Wind Turbine as determined by the Owner/operator or;
2) as specified in the materials provided at the time of application or;
3) pursuant to remedies described in Section 22.8, The Wind Turbine will be presumed to be at the end of its useful life if no electricity is generated for a continuous period of twelve (12) months.
23.2 Decommissioning shall include removal of wind turbines and foundations to a depth of 36 inches. All buildings, cabling, electrical components, roads, and any other associated facilities shall be removed unless, at the end of the Turbine or Wind Turbine Project‟s useful life, as determined in accordance with section 23.1, the Applicant provides written evidence of plans for continued beneficial use of these components of the Wind Turbine Project.
23.3 Except as otherwise provided by section 23.2, disturbed earth shall be graded and re-seeded, unless the Participating Landowner of the affected land requests otherwise in writing. Any alterations to Town roads or property during decommissioning must be approved by the Town.
23.4 Special Decommissioning Standards for Type, 3 and 4 Wind Turbine Projects
23.4.1 An independent and certified Professional Engineer shall be retained to estimate the total cost of decommissioning (“Decommissioning Costs”) without regard to salvage value of the equipment and the cost of decommissioning net salvage value of the equipment (“Net Decommissioning Costs”). The Planning Board shall review the estimates and determine the amount of decommissioning funds that must be guaranteed prior to operation of the Wind Turbine Project. Additional estimates by an independent and certified Professional Engineer shall be submitted to the Code Enforcement Officer every fifth year after approval, along with the application for renewal of the Operational License, and additional funds shall be guaranteed at that time if necessary in accordance with the revised estimate.
23.4.2 The Owner/operator shall post and maintain decommissioning funds in an amount equal to Net Decommissioning Costs; provided that at no point shall decommissioning funds be less than twenty five percent (25%) of Decommissioning Costs. The decommissioning funds shall be posted and maintained with a bonding company or Federal or State-chartered lending institution chosen by the Owner/operator and Participating Landowner posting the financial security, provided that the bonding company or lending institution is authorized to conduct such business within the State and is approved by the Town of Freedom, whose approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. Adequate funds shall be posted or guaranteed before the Code Enforcement Officer may issue an Operational License to the Owner/operator.
Appendix A – Noise Measurement Standards and Procedures
1. A qualified independent acoustical consultant shall conduct all noise studies. The acoustical consultant shall be hired by and report to the Permitting Authority during the permitting review stage, and by the Code Enforcement Officer for review of any suspected violations or for review of an Operational License.
2. Sound level meters and calibration equipment must comply with the latest version of the American National Standards Institute “American Standard Specifications for General Purpose Sound Level Meters” (ANSI Standard S1.4) and shall have been calibrated at a recognized laboratory within one month prior to the initiation of the study.
3. Except as specifically noted otherwise, measurements shall be conducted in compliance with ANSI Standard S12.18-1994 “Outdoor Measurements of Sound Pressure.
4. Prior to permit application approval, a pre-construction ambient noise level study shall be conducted at each Occupied Building within 2 miles of any proposed Wind Turbine.
5. The tests shall be conducted using both an A-weighting scale (dBA) and low frequency C weighting scale (dBC).
6. Tests shall be reflective of seasonal changes to vegetation and atmospheric conditions. At a minimum one set of tests should be performed during each of the four (4) calendar seasons of the year.
7. All measuring points shall be located in consultation with the property owners and such that no significant obstruction blocks noise and vibration to the site.
8. Outdoor noise level measurements must be taken at 6 feet above the ground and at least 15 feet from any reflective surface.
9. Duration of measurements shall be a minimum of ten continuous minutes for each criteria at each location.
10. Measurements must be made when the wind levels are less than 4.5 mph and with appropriate wind screening for the recording device.
11. Measurements should be obtained during representative weather conditions when the Wind Turbine noise is most noticeable, including periods of temperature inversion most commonly occurring at night.
12. Measurements shall be taken at each of the following three time periods:
- Day (10 a.m. – 2p.m.)
- Evening (7p.m. -11 p.m.)
- Night (12 midnight – 4 a.m.)
13. Each measurement shall be replicated during the same time period over three different days within the same season for a total of 9 measurements per location per season (i.e., three daytime measurements in the winter, three evening measurements in the winter, three night time measurements in the winter). The lowest of the three measurements per time period, per season, will be used to determine the pre-construction ambient noise for that time period and season.
14. For each measurement the following minimum criteria will be recorded:
- Lmax, Leq, L10 and L90 in dBA (Lmax: the maximum noise level measured; Leq: average noise level for a given period time; L10: sound level exceeded 10% of the time; L90: sound level exceeded 90 % of the time, generally equivalent to ambient noise.)
- Lmax, Leq, L10 and L90 in dBC
- A narrative description of any intermittent noises registered during each measurement
- Wind speed and direction at time of measurement
- Description of weather conditions at time of measurement
- Description of topography and contours relative to proposed or actual Wind Turbines
15. A 5 dBA and/or a 5 dBC penalty shall be applied for short duration repetitive noise or repetitive impulse noise. This is a characteristic “thumping” or “whooshing” sometimes exhibited by larger Wind Turbines. Per Maine TA Bulletin #4, intermittent noise is a more serious nuisance than constant noise.
16. A 5 dBA penalty shall be applied for tonal noise. This is a single or limited frequency noise (vs. broadband noise) associated with mechanical noise artifacts (i.e. high pitched whining, screeching, buzzing). Per Maine TA Bulletin #4, noise over a narrow frequency is a more serious nuisance than broadband noise.
17. For sites being measured with existing Wind Turbines two sets of measurements are required: 1) one set with the Wind Turbine(s) off and; 2) one set with the Wind Turbine(s) running.
18. For nuisance complaints after the Wind Turbines are operational, the measurement points, season, time, and duration of measurements shall be selected in consultation with the affected property owner. If requested by the property owner, continuous measurements may be taken for longer periods of time to capture intermittent nuisance noise patterns.
19. When conducting their pre-construction noise prediction analysis, the Applicant shall make specific reference to: 1) the unique aspect of the mountainous contours and terrain of the area and its effect on noise predictability and 2) line source noise predictions ( emanating from a line of Wind Turbines) in addition to the traditional single point source predictions.
20. Any noise level falling between two (2) whole decibels shall be deemed the higher of the two.
Download original document: “Town of Freedom Wind Turbine Ordinance”
Author: Dixfield, Maine
Section 11. Approval and Performance Standards
A WEFU or WEFS shall comply with the following setback requirements. If more than one (1) set back requirement applies, the greater set back distance shall be met. All measurements shall be based on horizontal distances.
11.1.1 All WEFUs shall be set back a horizontal distance of four thousand (4,000) feet from any Occupied Building in Dixfield and two thousand (2,000) feet from the boundaries of the Project Parcel unless the Applicant submits in writing: 1) a waiver of the Occupied Building setback signed by the pertinent abutting landowner and; 2) evidence such as operating protocols, safety programs, or recommendations from the manufacturer or a licensed professional engineer with appropriate expertise and experience with WEFUs, demonstrating that the reduced set back proposed by the Applicant will not cause the WEFU to violate any other approval standards of this Ordinance.
11.1.2 All WEFUs must be set back a minimum of four thousand (4,000) feet from any Scenic or Special Resource as defined in Section 4.0 of this Ordinance.
11.1.3 Each WEFU shall be equipped with an over-speed control system that: 1) includes both an aerodynamic control such as stall regulation, variable blade pitch or other similar system and a mechanical brake that operates in fail safe mode; or 2) has been designed by the manufacturer or a licensed engineer and found by the Board, based on its review of a written description of the design and function of the system, to meet the needs of public safety.
11.1.4 WEFUs shall be setback a horizontal distance equivalent to one hundred and fifty percent (150%) of the Turbine Height from Project Boundaries, Occupied Buildings, public and private rights-of-way and overhead utility lines that are not part of the proposed WEFS. No waiver of this standard is permitted. …
11.10.2 Sound Limits
No Permit shall be issued if the pre-permit information or sound study indicates that the proposed WEFU or WEFS will not comply with the following requirements, which are to apply at all Sensitive Receptors within four thousand (4,000) feet of any WEFU, except on Project Parcel(s) or on a Participating Parcel(s) which is subject to a Mitigation Waiver which specifies different sound limits than those below.
If pre-construction estimates of the post-construction sound levels exceed the limits below, then the WEFU or WEFS Application shall be denied; if these limits are exceeded after the WEFU or WEFS has been built, then the WEFU or WEFS will be in violation of this Ordinance:
A. The sound limits below are stated in terms of LeqA (post). Prior to construction of the WEFU or WEFS, the “pre” values are as measured and the “post” values are as calculated. After the WEFU or WEFS has been constructed, the “pre” values are the WEF-OFF values and the “post” values are the WEF-ON values.
B. Audible Sound Limit
1) No WEFU or WEFS shall be located so as to generate post-construction sound levels that exceed thirty-five (35) dBA at night (7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.) or forty-five (45) dBA during the day (7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.) anywhere in the Town beyond the boundaries of the Project Parcel and all Participating Parcels whose owners have waived noise restrictions.
2) No WEFU shall be allowed to operate if it exceeds fifty (50) dBC anywhere in the Town beyond the boundaries of the Project Parcel and all Participating Parcels whose owners have waived noise restrictions. …
D. Post-Construction Sound Measurements. Starting within twelve (12) months after the date when the WEFU or WEFS has begun operating, a post-construction sound study shall be performed for all WEFUs or WEFSs that are operating. Post-construction sound studies shall be conducted by a Qualified Independent Acoustical Consultant. The Permittee shall also pay for a Qualified Independent Acoustical Consultant chosen by the Planning Board to review the Permittee’s study. The Permittee shall deposit the estimated cost of such review upon notification by the Board. The Town’s consultant may observe the Permittee’s consultant’s monitoring. The Permittee shall provide all technical information required by the Board or Independent Qualified Acoustical Consultant before, during, and/or after any acoustical studies required by this document and for local area acoustical measurements. The Post-construction sound measurements shall be repeated every three (3) years throughout the life of the facility and submitted to the Code Enforcement Officer. The applicant may seek a waiver from the Code Enforcement Officer of all but the first post-construction measurements if no valid noise complaints are received during the previous three (3) year period.
E. Pre-construction and post-construction monitoring shall report sound levels in terms of LeqA, L90A, LeqC, and L90C for each hour of the monitoring period.
Download original document: “Wind Energy Facility Ordinance for the Town of Dixfield”
Author: Corporation of the Town of Plympton-Wyoming
In this by-law:
“A-weighting” means the frequency weighting characteristic as specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 61672, and intended to approximate the relative sensitivity of the normal human ear to different frequencies (pitches) of sound. It is denoted as “A”. …
“Infra-sound” means sound with energy in the frequency range of 0-20 Hz. It is often considered to be inaudible for most people unless at a relatively high amplitude but has been shown to be perceived via other senses at lower amplitudes especially for complex non-steady, non-sinusoidal pressure waves. Modern utility scale wind turbines produce an infrasonic blade passage tone typically centered at a frequency of 1 Hz or lower. [E.G. a wind turbine with hub rotation of 10 rpm would have a blade pass frequency of 0.5 Hz.] The most significant noise inside of a dwelling occurs from tones produced by the rotating blades of the wind turbine in the frequency range between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz. Most of this energy is below 3 Hz with sound pressures increasing as frequency decreased down to the blade pass frequency. …
“Low Frequency Noise” (LFN) refers to sounds with energy in the lower frequency range of 20 to 200 Hz. …
“Sound” is an oscillation in pressure, stress, particle displacement or particle velocity, in a medium with internal forces (e.g. elastic, viscous), or the superposition of such propagated oscillations, which may or may not cause an auditory sensation.
“Sound Level” means the A-weighted Sound Pressure Level.
“Sound Level Limit” is the limiting value described in terms of the one hour A-weighted Equivalent Sound Level.
“Sound Pressure” means the instantaneous difference between the actual pressure and the average or barometric pressure at a given location. The unit of measurement is the micro pascal (μPa).
“Sound Pressure Level” means twenty times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of the effective pressure (μPa) of a sound to the reference pressure of 20 μPa. …
(d) No Wind Facility shall make, cause or permit the emission of Infra-sound in the frequency between 0 Hz and 20 Hz. Infra-sound is deemed to be excessive when measurements inside of dwellings, using instruments suitable for sound pressure measurements at frequencies of 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz identify blade pass tones and their harmonics, present during wind turbine operation, when the following conditions are present and limits are exceeded:
ii) If the blade pass tone, or any of its harmonics, produce a sound pressure level of 50 dB or more when energy averaged over a period of one to several minutes or more, and,
iii) The crests (peaks) of the sound pressure exceed this average by 10 dB or more.
(e) No Wind Facility shall make, cause or permit the emission of LFN, where the difference between a C-weighted sound level and an A-weighted sound level is greater than 15 decibels at any measurement point inside or outside an occupied structure, or the difference between an un-weighted sound level (including Infra-sound from 0.1 Hz and above, using an instrument rated to measure Infra-sound down to 0.1 Hz) and an A-weighted sound level is greater than 20 decibels at any such measurement point.
(f) No Wind Facility shall make, cause or permit infrasonic barometric pressure disturbance (IBPD), where any cyclic pressure disturbance having amplitude at any given frequency in the stated frequency range exceeds 2 milli-Pascals RMS (0.002 Pascal RMS) for a repeatable duration of 10 seconds or more in any 40-second period.
Read a third time and finally passed this 8th day of October, 2014.
Download original document: “By-law to provide for the regulation of wind turbine noise within the Town of Plympton-Wyoming”
Author: Mason County, Ky., Fiscal Court
Industrial Scale WECS: A Wind Energy Conversion System constructed on the property ofanother by a company or corporation or other entity, whose general intent is to capture wind energy and place it on the electrical grid for resale to a public utility or other energy marketer.
Mid-Scale WECS: A Wind Energy Conversion System with a generating capacity up to 50 Kw, the installation intended to collect wind energy for the purpose ofsupplying energy to the owners and shall not entail net metering. Mid-Scale WECS are considered a non-residential accessory use.
Small-Scale WECS: A Wind Energy Conversion System designed to provide power to a home or other local site for use by the owner. Small-Scale WECS may have a generating capacity of up to 5 Kw and shall not entail net-metering capability. Small-scale WECS are considered non-residential accessory structures.
Location. Industrial scale WECS are permitted only in districts [zoned for industry] as specified in Chapter 406, Land Use Classification and Designation.
Minimum Setback Distances for INDUSTRIAL SCALE WECS TOWERS.
Distance from a …
- Property line, measured from the center of the WECS Tower to the property line
- Residential dwellings, regularly occupied industrial or institutional buildings, measured from the center of the WECS Tower to the nearest comer of the structure
- Public road right-of-way measured from the centerofthe WECS Tower to the edge ofthe right-of-way
- Other rights-of-way, such as railroads and public utility easements, measured from the center of WECS Tower to the edge of the right-of-way
- Public conservation lands, measured from the center ofthe WECS Tower to the nearest point of the public conservation land in question
- Rural Residential Districts and Communities measured from the WECS Tower to the Rural Residential District Line
- Incorporated limits ofa municipality and County boundary, as measured from the center ofthe WECS Tower to the corporate limits or County boundary
- Wetlands, as defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, measured from the center of the WECS Tower to the nearest point ofthe Wetland in question
- Above-ground electric transmission or distribution line, measured from the nearest horizontal extension
… One Mile, (5,280 Feet)
Industrial scale WECS’s ancillary structures such as substations and maintenance and operation facilities are considered principle structures and subject to principle structure setbacks unless otherwise specified herein or if specifically identified as an accessory structure.
Flicker which results from the passage of the blades of a rotating wind turbine between the sun and any occupied structure shall be limited to the following:
- No more than 30 minutes a day.
- No more than 30 hours a year.
Noise and Vibration
No turbine shall be located so as to create a decibel level greater than 30 dBa at the property line of the parcel in which the turbine is located and also less than 50 dB(C) at the property lines of the parcel in which the turbine is located.
Download original document: “Wind Energy Conversion Systems Ordinance – Mason County, Ky.”